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Neuroblastoma is a form of cancer that occurs in infants and young children.
It is rarely found in children older than 10 years. The cells of this cancer
usually resemble very primitive developing nerve cells found in an embryo
or fetus. (The term neuro indicates "nerves," while blastoma refers to a
cancer that affects immature or developing cells).

Neurons (nerve cells) are the main component of the brain and spinal cord
and of the nerves that connect them to the rest of the body. These cells
are essential for thinking, sensation, and movement. There is a part of the nervous system that we are rarely aware of, called the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the autonomic nervous system.

It includes:
  • nerve fibers that run alongside the spinal cord
  • clusters of nerve cells called ganglia (plural of ganglion) at certain
    points along the path of the nerve fibers
  • nerve-like cells found in the medulla (center) of the adrenal glands.
    The adrenals are triangular-shaped glands located above the kidneys.
    The hormone adrenaline comes from the cells in the adrenal gland.
Most neuroblastomas (about two thirds) start in the abdomen. About one
third of neuroblastomas start in the adrenal glands and another third begin
in the sympathetic nervous system ganglia of the abdomen. The rest start
in sympathetic ganglia of the chest or neck or in the pelvis. Some can start
in the spinal cord. Rarely, a neuroblastoma may have spread so extensively
by the time it is found that doctors are unable to determine exactly where
it started.

Not all childhood autonomic nervous system tumors are malignant
(cancerous). There is a benign tumor called ganglioneuroma which is
composed of mature ganglion and nerve sheaths that do not continue to

Ganglioneuroblastoma is a tumor that has both malignant and benign parts.
It contains neuroblasts (immature nerve cells) that can grow and spread abnormally, as well as areas of benign tissue that are similar to
ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are usually removed by surgery and
carefully examined under a microscope to be certain they do not have areas
of ganglioneuroblastoma. If the final diagnosis is ganglioneuroma, no additional treatment is needed. In contrast, ganglioneuroblastomas are treated the
same as neuroblastomas.

Neuroblastoma is a unique cancer in many ways. It is one of the few
cancers in children that release hormones that can cause strange changes
in the body, such as constant diarrhea. It can also cause changes in the
some functions of the brain, such as opsoclonus (rotary movements of the
eyes) and myoclonus (spastic jerks of the muscles).

These changes are called paraneoplastic syndromes.

The tumor itself can behave strangely. Sometimes the cells die without any cause and the tumor disappears. This is part of a normal process known as programmed cell death (apoptosis), the normal process that occurs when
cells die. This tumor disappearance is much more common in very young
infants than in older children.

Another behavior that is unusual for childhood tumors is that the cells sometimes mature spontaneously to normal ganglion cells and stop dividing.
This causes the tumor to become a ganglioneuroma, which is benign (non-cancerous).